What Are the Primary Usage, Types and Features of Pulse Oximeters?

A pulse oximeter is a noninvasive medical device or noninvasive measurement instrument that measures the oxygen saturation in a patient’s blood and pulse rates. These devices are very convenient and useful as they can be used with no trouble anytime and anywhere. This particular model is known as the portable pulse oximeters.

These are clipped to a translucent part of a patient’s body which can be usually a finger or earlobe, a photodiode is faced with a pair of small light-emitting diodes,  cafebarhetzwaantje   which has two different wavelengths. One LED is an infrared and the other is red. Absorption at the said wavelengths differs a lot between oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, thus, making it possible to calculate the ratio between the two. The most widely used types of are the finger pulse oximeters which are attached to the fingertip.

The major reason of applying these is that this device reads the current amount of oxygen present in blood by placing the sensor over the fingertip (or sometimes the earlobe). The exact reading will indicate whether you need to stop your activity, or to have supplemental oxygen. Earlier, doctors mainly had to rely on their clinical eye for the judgment, diagnosis, and evaluation of various medical conditions of the patient.

This was a major concern as some symptoms may noticeable already at the late stages of the disease, especially with problems regarding respiration. When patients breathing becomes weaken, arterial blood oxygen levels may quickly fall and deficiency of oxygen may be dangerous and would definitely put patients at risk. In the past, there were only a few tools that could help out them in examining patients, but fortunately, with the advancement of medical technology, these helps doctors to diagnose and treat diseases more effectively.

Pulse oximeter is attached to the finger and from there it receives the blood oxygenation and pulse rate reading. These have become very handy as they are portable and efficient to use, thus, making these the most common among its types. Another type is one that is the handheld oximeter. These are models which basically involve the use of a probe. This probe is normally attached, using a special cord, to a unit. When testing, place the probe to your earlobe or finger and then switch on the oximeter.

There are basically four types of these devices which are made to cater to one’s medical needs, these are fingertip, wrist, handheld and tabletop models.

1. Fingertip: Fingertip pulse oximeter, clips onto a patient’s finger, and comes with a tiny computer and screen. This type is very light and portable and will be easy to store in your pulse or pocket. The clip emits light from one side and measures the light on the other. Its computer is further used to measures the light over several pulses and gives readout of the patient’s blood-oxygen level. Merely slip the device on your finger and wait for the readings to display on the screen on the face of the fingertip pulse oximeter. This particular type is very easy to operate and is often used at home. The only disadvantage of this type is if the patient’s hand is damaged or his blood flow is slow because of a clot or injury, it may not give an accurate reading or it may not work at all.

2. Wrist: This type is very comfortable as it can be made to wear they like a watch and the sensor is slid onto a finger. A small wire is attaches the two components and these wrist oximeters are used for continuous monitoring and are very popular in sleep centers. These devices are capable in storing up to 24 hours of reading which can be afterward download to a computer.

3. Handheld: The handheld type is generally used in almost every hospital. This type is also similar to the fingertip device but has a more versatile clip that connects with a cord to a computer. Similar to as the fingertip, this type uses light to measure the blood’s hemoglobin and clips to patient’s fingertip or earlobe. This device is vital in cases where a patient’s extremities are compromised and may not have full blood flow. Since the earlobe clip is so close to the brain, it is rare to have compromised blood flow. Hence in emergency situations handheld oximeter is clipped to a patient’s toe which is also recommended by medical practitioners.

4. Tabletop: Unlike its various models this particular type is not portable but again have more sensors and features geared toward continuous monitoring. They also can incorporate other monitoring tools such as blood pressure.

With having one of these devices, there’s no need for a trip to the medical office or waiting for a nurse or other health practitioner to make an expensive call at your home.

For more information on Life Saving Pulse Oximeters please visit our website.


Horse Vital Signs – Temperature, Pulse, Respiration

Three standard indicators of a horse’s health are temperature, pulse rate and respiration. These can be used not only to determine if your horse is ill but also can indicate the type of illness.

Horse’s Temperature

The normal temperature for a horse is about 38C (100.5F). Individual horses may vary half a degree either side of this, so you may want to take your    kentech   horse’s temperature when it is healthy so you know what its healthy temperature is exactly. There can also be a variation of up to half a degree due to time of day and activity. Variations of more than one degree indicate a problem, which should be treated accordingly..

An elevated (abnormally high) temperature usually indicates that the horse has an infection. In such cases, keeping the horse warm and comfortable is important. In particular, one should protect it from being chilled by cold, wet or windy weather. The higher the temperature is, the more serious the condition, and the more likely that veterinary assistance or antibiotics may be required.

A depressed (abnormally low) temperature is unusual, but can occur in cold weather (especially if it is wet or windy) if the horse is unable to maintain its temperature. Horses which are old, sick or weak can be chilled easier and faster in cold conditions. A drop in temperature should be taken seriously as even small changes can easily result in secondary issues such as colic, or even be fatal. The horse should be moved to shelter and covered with a warming rug. If you have mash, mixing a small quantity with some warm water (but not hot!) and feeding it to the horse can help it warm up, partly due to the warming effect of the water and partly from the quick energy of the mash. The horse should be closely monitored until it warms up and fully recovers. To prevent a reoccurence, one should ensure that the horse has adequate shelter from the weather, consider using a horse rug on colder days (especially if wet or windy) and consider giving it a quantity of high-energy food (such as mash or grain) during cold periods (note that any dietary changes should first be discussed with a veterinarian to avoid potential dietary related problems such as laminitis).

If a horse shows signs of illness or abnormal behavior, but does not have a temperature, the problem is probably not infection related. In other words, it could be an injury or a non-infection illness such as colic or laminitis. Consequently, even a normal temperature is is useful diagnostic tool, as it helps to eliminate infections (e.g. strangles) as possible causes of the problem symptoms.

If you are not experienced in taking a horse’s temperature, you should first do this with an experienced person, to minimize risk of injury to yourself or the horse. Some tips:

An electronic thermometer is better than a glass thermometer, as it is faster and does not have the risk of breaking and associated injury. If you only have mercury thermometer available, first shake the mercury below 37.4 and take care that it does not break when inserting into or removing from the horse.
If possible, have someone at the head end to distract the horse with a bit of food. If working on your own, consider first tying up the horse to minimize movement or risk of it running off.
Put some lubricant on the bulb-end of the thermometer to make insertion in the rectum easier.
Raise the tail with your left hand and insert the bulb into the rectum with your right (if you are left-handed, hold tail with right and insert with left). With mercury thermometers one needs to wait about half a minute and not remove until the mercury stops moving. With electric thermometers readings are normally quicker and depending on type it may beep to tell you that the reading is complete.
Horses can be startled by this procedure and may kick, so one should watch and be careful of the horse. Standing slightly to one side rather than directly behind the horse is a safer position.
Make sure that you hold onto the thermometer firmly, as otherwise movement of the sphincter muscle could draw the thermometer inside the horse.
Wash the thermometer and if possible wipe it with alcohol (or appropriate disinfectant) to sterilize it before putting it away.
Pulse Rate
A horse’s pulse rate should be taken when it is resting, as the pulse rate during exercise or shortly thereafter is not a good indication (unless one is using pulse recovery rates and maximum pulse rates as part of a fitness evaluation). The normal pulse rate for a horse is depends on various factors such as breed (e.g. ponies tend to be faster), age and physical fitness. Consequently, it is wise to take your horse’s pulse rate when it is well and write this down, so that you know the normal pulse rate of your horse. Then, if you suspect illness, you will know the normal pulse of your horse which you can test against. If you don’t know your horse’s normal pulse rate, consider the range of 36-42 beats per minute as normal.

To take the pulse, gently press your fingers against an artery and count the number of beats. You will need a watch with a second hand to measure the time. The easiest places to feel the pulse are:

Under the top of the lower jaw, gently pressing the artery against the underlying bone
On the horse’s cheek, just above and behind the eye
The inside of a foreleg, level with the knee, where the artery runs over the bone.
One can also use a stethoscope, pressed gently against an artery, to listen for the pulse rather than using one’s fingers to feel for it.

An elevated pulse rate can be associated with illness or pain (as well as exercise or fear). A high pulse rate combined with a normal temperature indicates a non-infection illness. A high pulse rate combined with a high respiration rate but a normal temperature is often associated with pain.

Respiration Rate

The resting respiration rate of an adult horse is 8-15 times per minute. This is a wide range as the normal respiration rate for an individual horse is dependent on its breed, age and general condition. Consequently, it is wise to take your horse’s respiration rate when it is well and write this down, so that you know the normal respiration of your horse, which you can then test against if at a later date you suspect illness.

The easiest way to measure a horse’s respiration is to stand behind it and watch its flanks, while timing with a watch. You may need to first move the horse into an area where it is quiet and away from other horses, as excitement or sniffing can make an accurate count difficult. Likewise, on a hot day you may need to move it out of the sun, as a hot horse breaths faster.

An elevated respiration can be associated with illness or pain (as well as exercise or fear). A high rate combined with a normal temperature indicates a non-infection illness. A high respiration rate combined with a high pulse rate but a normal temperature is often associated with pain.


Pulse Generator Circuit Appreciation

Pulse Generator Circuit

Curiosity can lead a person to learning new concepts or ideas, as long as it is directly associated with what caused the curiosity.

Yes, this is applicable to many things including technological devices. By constantly examining how these devices work, people can discover a vast amount of information about them.

Take the pulse generator circuit. Any ordinary person will find this device new and complicated to grasp unless the person is an engineer or an Information  schulheft-designer   Technology graduate. When using this device it will be certain that many people will wonder how it functions.

What is pulse generator circuit?

It is a major part of a pulse generator, or even other types of machines. This circuit comprises of active electronic devices or a network that produces, releases, and controls the impulse or energy and provides a loop to return the current. Moreover, this circuit generates waveforms that rise rapidly.

The pulse from this circuit is very irregular. It can rise rapidly and fall suddenly, in this way; the circuit is able to produce several pulses and aids the generator. The rise and fall of the pulses is the foremost task of the circuit, this way the generator can work appropriately.

Most pulse circuits functions in similar ways. The components such as the transformer, capacitor, transistor, resistor, and voltages may vary in each device. The circuit remains a vital element because without it would lead to a non-functioning device.

How pulse generator circuit works?

Primarily, the circuit functions by charging the capacitors which could eventually lead to the buildup of voltages. Once sufficient voltages are release, the internal comparator is then activated, resulting in the fastening of the outside flip-flop. Thereafter, the outside flip-flop triggers the discharge pin.

On the other hand, an insufficient voltage leads to the charging of the second capacitors. In this way, the second capacitors also snap the outside flip-flop resulting to the production of pulse. To be fully functioning, this system must occur continuously and simultaneously.

What are the uses of pulse generator circuits?

Many engineers rely substantially on pulse generator circuits since they will work on any number of devices.

First, the pulses generated from this circuit could be used in testing devices that are now in use. Through this way, the circuit helps detect the errors that are present in the device and confirms the correct functions or stimuli. This procedure is crucial since the successful use of the electronic devices rely on the effectiveness of detecting errors.

Furthermore, pulse generator circuit drives many tools like the modulators, intensifies, laser and optical components, and switches. Without the circuit, any of these devices will certainly not function. This is one of the reasons that generator’s circuits are thoroughly studied and innovated to sustain the demands of new inventions and technological advancement.

Lastly, the generator circuit could be used as a signal modulator for signal generators, allowing for the detection of various signs and indicators that may arise.

Today, these devices have fully enhanced people’s way of living. From the simple light switches to the more complex cellular phones, it is vital that pulse generators are available to sustain and check its functions. To sum it all up, the usefulness of every device could be attributed to the effectiveness of the pulse generator circuits within it.

People can become curious at times and must not just settle on the information that is commonly discussed and talked about. Many might find the topic difficult to comprehend but with today’s many sources of data,many will discover and comprehend its functions and systematic patterns. It only entails some bits of curiosity, some sources of data, and some loads of patience to appreciate pulse generator circuit.


Pulse Oximeter Home Use for Management of COPD

Beginning in late 2012, hospitals are being penalized for Medicare patients requiring readmission within 30 days of treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or chronic heart failure. Hospitals are changing their discharge procedures to achieve these goals but ultimately the patient is responsible for staying on track outside the hospital. Should the patient, you or your family member, return to the hospital within 30 days of discharge for previous treatment President Obama’s health care initiative significantly penalizes the hospital.    gandhitoday   If hospital’s instructions and patient’s course of treatment fail forcing the patient back to the hospital they may find themselves in “holding” to avoid being readmitted. During this period patients can receive some treatments and medications but this leaves you the patient on the hook for the bill.

No doubt this is not the intention of the 2010 health care act but it is a reality of it. There are several hospital focus groups with expanded follow-ups for patients after discharge investigating the most effective way to keep patients on track outside of the hospital walls but these groups incur more costs to the hospital and in these days of reduced Medicare reimbursements don’t yet fit into the budget. To avoid being a statistic in the new policy, you can take some measures on your own to stabilize your chronic heart and lung conditions with the home use of a pulse oximeter.

Pulse Oximeters are used to spot check COPD, CHF and asthma patients that are on supplemental oxygen at home. If oxygen saturation levels drop below a doctor recommended level the patient can administer oxygen to manage their situation. Avoiding low spikes allows the patient to live a more normal life without fear of having their condition get the best of them at the wrong time.

Pulse Oximeters are used to measure oxygen levels in the blood. These electronic devices use light emitting diodes projecting light through an extremity like a finger. One LED is infra-red wavelength and the other is red wavelength. Oxygenated hemoglobin absorbs infra-red light while deoxygenated hemoglobin absorbs red light. Detectors opposite the LEDs measure the light not absorbed and using an algorithm then displays oxygen saturation level SpO2%. Tracking this percentage helps the user manage their condition and treatment at home.

The most common pulse oximeter for home users are fingertip pulse oximeters. These devices are non-invasive and only about the size of a pack of gum. They are placed over your first finger so the LEDs emit through the fingernail. This is convenient and effective. Your heart rate and oxygen level are measured and displayed on an LED display. Typically the pulse oximeter is battery powered and operates with only the touch of one button. More advanced models are available with color displays but more importantly, memory. A pulse oximeter with memory allows the user to consistently track their levels over longer time periods and even while sleeping. These recorded sessions can be conveyed to the treating doctor in case updates to the treatment are required.

Patients with CHF may have reasonable oxygen levels much of the time but using the data recording feature of a wrist pulse oximeter allows users to track their level over time to check for sporadic reduction of oxygen levels and heart rate. This can happen during the patient’s sleep. More advanced pulse oximeters have audible alarms that can be set for specified minimum oxygen levels and heart rate. A wrist pulse oximeter still uses a sensor on the fingertip but the display unit and memory are worn on the wrist exactly like a wrist watch. These models are typically best for use at night while sleeping.

With inadequate blood flow during exercise or even resting, organs and tissue will not receive enough oxygen. Some pulse oximeters are capable of measuring and presenting perfusion index (PI) and can be used to assess a patient’s blood flow over time. This is an indication of the plethysmographic signal where the pulse oximeter is taking its measurements. The normal PI measurement for individuals is relative. One person’s acceptable value can be different than another. That is why consistent measurements over time at home are valuable and finding a quality, user friendly pulse oximeter that can provide accurate readings is important.

Medical devices such as the pulse oximeter for home use are sufficiently accurate and easy to use. Monitoring your health and treatment for chronic illness at home can lead to a more consistent and enjoyable life. Fingertip pulse oximeters are affordable and effective for home use to help keep patients on track outside the hospital and keep them safe from being stuck in the readmission limbo.

Medical Test Supply is an online provider of home medical devices, including pulse oximeters, blood pressure monitors, and nebulizers. We offer a variety of different models, brands and price points, and offer free shipping on certain items. For more information visit


Your Pulse Rate

When a man sees a pretty girl, his pulse rate increases 1,5 times. A beautiful dress with pretty discounts makes a woman’s heart increase rhythm 1,5 times. When we visit a dentist, it starts dap-dancing. However, if we analyze its rhythm more seriously, we can learn something more interesting than emotional splashes – for example, everything about our health state.

Rhythms of health

What can you say after taking your pulse? Hum, it seems 70 beats a minute…    cafebarhetzwaantje   And a specialist on sphygmic diagnostics, having checked your right and left wrists, could diagnose slightest defects – down to regularity of your period, whether you suffer from insomnia and when you had sex for the last time. And there is more to come! He would determine that you like sweets, and you are awful in anger… And if you were pregnant, he would determine your baby’s sex. With 80% accuracy. Indeed, one needs to spend a quarter of life to learn all nuances of such diagnostics, and fingers of Aesculapian should get supersensitiveness.

Once a venerable diagnostician was invited to a Chinese emperor’s wife. A case was serious, as nobody could touch Her Majesty’s hand, besides her husband, – even look at her… A quick Aesculapian asked her to wrap her wrist with one thread’s end, and throw another one over screen to him. Empress decided to check a famous man’s competence, attaching thread’s end firstly to a vase, and then to her monkey’s forefoot. But every time a doctor determined dirty trick accurately. Surprised Empress took pity on him, finally, and in a minute court circle knew about soon birth of a Crown Prince…

Do you know that…

A female heart works more, than male: 8-10 beats per minute more.
“Canon about difficult”

Connection between a human pulse and his health was first noticed by Chinese doctors 1000 years ago. They composed a whole system of diagnostics of diseases called “Canon about difficult” – you know, they could diagnose about 2000 kinds of pulse! If we abridge this treatise to several sentences, then we will receive the following.

Our heart contracts with certain frequency. Walls of arteries spread synchronously with it. Blood communicates these vibrations to vessels, passing through them. Circulating along whole organism, it gathers information about processes that take place in it. For example, some organ got inflamed. Or some vertebra slightly moved from its place. Everything blood “knew”, it expresses in frequency of pulse rate, strength and regularity. You can not only diagnose illness according to pulse, but also inceptive disease, which you cannot suppose of yet. By the way, you can carry out self-diagnostics by yourself. And for this you should not study for tens of years.

Rules of the “game”

Determination of pulse rate is quite a delicate matter. Only one candy you ate the day before or a small quarrel with someone can change it beyond recognition. So, before taking your pulse, mind advices of experienced diagnosticians.

– Have a good sleep

– Take pulse on an empty stomach. Even a draught of wine and pill you took the day before can break its rhythm!

– Avoid taking a bath, massage, hard physical work and making sex.

– Try not to overheat and become too cold.

– Relax, put off wrist-watch, bracelets, chains and rings.

– Start diagnostics at about 11 am – this is the best time.

Do you know that…

A healthy man’s pulse is about 2,5 times quicker than a bull’s one (25 beats per minute), 3,5 times – than an elephant’s (20 beats per minute) and about 7 times slower than a mouse’s pulse (500 beats per minute).


On a question: “Can you take your pulse correctly?” – many will answer quickly: “Yes, it’s as easy as pie”. However, according to experts’ observations, 20% of us do this not so correct, 30% – completely wrong, and other 30% do not know where it is situated at all!
There are lots of ways to find pulsatile places correctly: put your palm to heart, put fingertips to a bend of elbow or temples. The simplest and truest way is to take pulse on radial artery, i.e. on a wrist.

Seizure. Clasp right arm in left one, so that it would lay with your palm up. Press a tip of your forefinger to a base of a thumb, middle finger – near forefinger, and a fourth finger – with middle.

Timer. Put clock in front of you and note one minute.
Counter. Count number of beats for this period.
Fingers. Probably, a tip of some finger will sense beats more intensively, than others. Note, which one.
Transmission. Certainly pay attention on which arm pulse is more intensive – right or left.


What is “good”?

You pulse is regular, intensive and rhythmic. Congratulations, you are healthy. As for number of beats, it depends of age. It is considered to be normal for:

– babies under 2 years – up to 100 beats per minute

– children from 3 to 7 years – 95

– from 8 to 14 – 80

– adults – 72

– old ones – 65.

What is “bad”?

Any doctor, who does not know details of Chinese art, will say that rapid, slowed or uneven pulse testifies about defects in organism. Well, you will be able to know these details.

1. If pulse is more intensive on right wrist, illness, most likely, is localized on right side of body. And on the contrary, active beating on left says that problem should be searched in the same place.

2. Basic pulse beats are felt under forefinger? Check on which hand. If on left, defects of work of lungs or large bowel are possible, – take notice of this and visit therapeutist. On right one? Defects of heart or small intestine functioning are possible – in this case you should check your cardiogram.

3. Intensive pulsation under middle finger on right signals about problems with stomach or spleen, and on left – with liver or gall-bladder. In both cases it is better to visit gastroenterologist.

4. Pronounced pushes under fourth finger on left hand testifies that probably something is wrong with your left kidney and genitals. On right – pay attention to your right kidney and urinary bladder. To specify diagnosis, it is better to visit urologist and gynaecologist.

A boy or a girl?

If you are pregnant and are on tiptoe with curiosity about sex of your baby, try to determine it according to pulse (but only if you have no problems with health!). If your pulse rate is normal, but beating is more intensive under fourth finger on a right wrist – you should expect a boy, left – a girl.

Rings and bracelets.

According to an ancient Chinese system “Fukuri”, wrist is a very important section for health. If you clamp a place of pulsation on it, you can … damage your heart. Left wrist is responsible for men’s cardiac muscle, right – for women’s.

Conclusion: we should put on watch and bracelets on left wrist, and men – on right.

Yana Mikheeva is the creator of the WomansPassions site for women and about women at [] , it is an on-line resource for women and about women. Here you can find articles on various subjects, such as: diets, receipts, health, cellulite, figure, aromatherapy, wholesome food, psychology of relationships, pregnancy, parenting, fashion and many others.


How to Get a Healthy Pulse Rate

A healthy pulse rate is as equally important as a healthy heart in order to lead a healthy life. It may seem quite confusing to some, but it is something that is often overlooked because most people think that as long as the heart is beating okay and there are no health issues, then everything is ok. However such is always not the case. Sure, your heart may seem to be beating normally, but your pulse rate may be saying another thing.  rebeccastenncompany   That is why during check-ups at the hospital, nurses and doctors check for both your blood pressure and your pulse. A lot of people may not be aware of this, but there is such a thing as a healthy pulse. The pulse is a vital sign and indication of a person’s health – good or bad. Checking your pulse regularly will help you determine if you are going through certain health problems or not.

The pulse of an individual varies from time to time depending on the activities that they take. There is however a normal pulse rate or a healthy pulse rate for adults and children alike. The healthy pulse rate for an average adult is around sixty to one hundred beats per minute during the resting stage. This can go down to forty when the person is asleep or go up to as high as 150 to 200 beats per minutes when they are doing strenuous activities such exercising or running. Conditioned athletes however can have lower rates than sixty. Infants have higher rates, around 110 beats per minute.

One must also note that healthy pulse rates differ according to gender. Other factors that determine or affect the normal pulse of a person are the following: age, weight, lifestyle of the person, and the fitness of the person. When the person lives a sedentary kind of lifestyle and eats whatever they like, chances are their rate will not be healthy. There are many ways to keep a healthy pulse and one of them is through regular exercise. Short walks or taking the stairs instead of the elevator is always good for the heart. Learn to watch your diet as well. Eating healthy foods and staying away from too much meat, alcohol and fat will definitely help in keeping your heart and your pulse rate healthy and normal. They may be simple but they are almost always hard to do especially if you have been accustomed to eating a lot or not exercising at all.

Do remember that a healthy pulse rate is vital indicator of how you are doing. Being disciplined will keep you healthy so it is always a good idea to keep in check the food that you are eating and keeping it balanced. Include a variety of vegetables and fruits and stay away from meat. Exercise regularly to keep your heart rate and blood flow at a regular.

With a lifelong passion for health, I enjoy sharing my personal experiences with diet and exercise. I also enjoy reviewing products, enjoy my latest reviews on which 36 range hood and 48 range hood


Everything You Need to Know About Pulse Rate

There are four vital signs considered when looking at the condition of a patient. These vital signs are temperature, blood pressure, respiratory rate and pulse rate. Though this is a standard procedure, some people would think that pulse rate and blood pressure are the same which is bogus. Moreover, most people would think that the pulse rate is not as important as the other vital signs which is also a major mistake.

Pulse rate (PR) is the number    ezebike   of beats recorded in a minute. This is entirely different with the blood pressure which has a diastolic and systolic reading.Also known as a cardiac rate or heart rate, it is different for every person. Children have faster pulse rates than adults. However it is entirely different for adults whose pulses are faster or slower than usual. This means that these people might have health problems. Children which are aged 6 to 15 years old have a heart rate of 70 to 100 beats per minute normally. People who are aged 18 above however have 60 to 100 normal beats per minute. These may vary depending on what activity that person is on which is why there are different kinds to be considered.

The first type of rate is the resting pulse. This is recorded when the person is at rest. This is also the usual pulse recorded from a patient. Another type of pulse is the maximum pulse rate (MPR). This is the highest rate that ever can be recorded from a person. The MPR is dependent on the age of the person. It is computed with 220 minus the age of the person. The difference is considered as the predicted MPR. The practical recording of this may be done after undergoing a graded exercise test. The last type is the target pulse rate (TPR). This is computed by getting the 60 percent of the MPR’s 80 percent. This is the standard pulse recorded when a person is undergoing an exercise routine.

Determining the rate of the pulse is a simple matter and can be done by anyone. It can be recorded by using the index, second and third finger on certain areas where the pulse can be felt. These areas are on the wrist, temples of the head, inside of the foot, neck, behind the knees and in the groin. Counting the beats the whole minute may be avoided by simply counting the beats on the first 10 seconds and multiplying it by 6. This may be done with the usual resting pulse rate. The maximum pulse rate and the target heart rate however are computed in a different way. Both rates can be computed using a specific formula.

Knowing one’s rate is important primarily because it is one of the vital signs. It is important not only because it is one of the vital signs but because it could know if something is wrong with the health of the person.

Pulse Width Modulation also called PWM, is a great method of controlling the amount of power delivered to a load without dissipating any wasted power because the average power delivered to the load is proportional to the modulation duty cycle.

Many people attempt to control the speed of a D.C. motor using a large variable resistor (called a rheostat) in series with the motor to control the amount of current and therefore the speed of the motor. While this may work it generates a lot of heat and wasted power in the resistance. One simple way to control the speed of a motor is to regulate the amount of voltage across its terminals. This is achieved using “Pulse Width Modulation” or PWM by driving the motor with a series of “ON-OFF” pulses rather than a continuously varying (analog) voltage. By increasing or decreasing the pulse widths, the PWM circuit regulates energy flow to the motor while keeping the frequency constant.

The power applied to the motor can be controlled by varying the width of these applied pulses and thereby varying the average voltage applied to the motors terminals. By changing or modulating the timing of these pulses the speed of the motor can be controlled, i.e. the longer the pulse is “ON”, the faster the motor will rotate and likewise, the shorter the pulse is “ON” the slower the motor will rotate. The difference in the ratio between the “ON” pulse and the “OFF” pulse is called the duty cycle. Duty cycle is expressed as a percentage relating to the fraction of time that the output voltage is “ON” and may be varied from 0 to 100 percent. So for a duty cycle of 0 percent the motor is fully-off, 50 percent the motor is operation at half speed, and 100 percent the motor is fully-on.



How to Crush It With Lead Generation on LinkedIn Pulse

Blogging was promoted to be the promised land for entrepreneurs, business owners and marketers.

Do you ever spend time crafting a brilliantly written article, posting it on your blog, only to hear the sound of crickets?

So to boost the number of people seeing your article, you post it on social media and send a blast to your email list.

You check your web    spaceworld    stats the next day only to see that your blog masterpiece has largely gone unseen.

What’s a frustrated marketer to do?

Enter LinkedIn Pulse, LinkedIn’s publishing platform

Here’s why you should make publishing on LinkedIn Pulse a top priority for your business:

Provides You An SEO Boost. LinkedIn is one of the top 10 most high-traffic websites on the Internet. When you publish content on LinkedIn Pulse, Google can index it quickly. Because LinkedIn is a high-authority site, when readers view your LinkedIn Pulse articles, it helps build authority and visibility for your content.

LinkedIn Followers Are Notified of Your LinkedIn Pulse Articles. When you publish an article on your blog, your audience is limited to your website visitors, your email subscribers, and your social media followers. However when you publish a new LinkedIn Pulse article, your entire network of LinkedIn connections is notified. This gives you exposure to a wide audience of new readers by appearing in your follower’s newsfeeds.

Drives Website Traffic. You can add an article byline at the end of your LinkedIn Pulse article with a call to action so you can capture leads with an opt-in offer or drive website traffic by directing them to your blog to read other related articles. Here’s an example of an article byline you can add to your LinkedIn Pulse articles:

Want More Valuable Tips?
Read more of my LinkedIn posts here LINK
Get your free Special report here LINK
Setup a free Discovery Session here LINK
About the Author (Your short bio here.)
Boosts Your Thought Leadership. LinkedIn Pulse categories your content by using the tags you add at the end of the article. Your article is shown to people searching for content on that topic. That targeted viewership helps to build your authority and trust with LinkedIn’s over 380 million members. The potential for massive exposure and visibility is incredible.

9 Tips for Writing LinkedIn Pulse Posts That Get Read

Add an Eye-catching Article Image. Design a cover graphic that attracts attention. The ideal size for your LinkedIn article is 700 x 400 pixels.

Create a Catchy Headline. Consider your headline your opening line. Describe your content in a compelling way. Your headline should capture readers’ interest and give them a reason to click through and read it. Add numbers. Use adjectives.

Publish Consistently. Share new articles on LinkedIn Pulse regularly. Adding new content weekly like we do can build a regular following. Posting during the week during work hours will ensure your article gets the best visibility.

Write Shorter Articles. For best performance, and ideal post length is 500-1000 words.

Make it Scannable. Add subheaders and use images to break up content and lead readers through it.

Tag your Posts. Select 3 tags that are most related to your article content. You have to choose from the existing tag categories that LinkedIn Pulse offers.Selecting the right tags helps your post be found by readers in your target audience and can boost your chances of being selected as a featured LinkedIn Pulse article.

Engage with Readers Who Comment. Make sure you reply to those who comment or share your post. This is your chance to build rapport with those who have shown interest.That extra step can turn a one-time reader into a loyal follower. Plus the percentage of likes, reshares and comments of your content is what triggers LinkedIn to make it a featured article in Pulse.

Kick it up with Images, Links, Videos, and Slideshares. Make your content more appealing by adding in graphics, outgoing links, and videos that relate to the article. Readers love when you share outgoing links to additional resources and websites mentioned in the article.Also, Google rewards LinkedIn articles with strong related links for further information to readers.

Share your Pulse on Other Platforms. Just like you would share a blog post on social media, notify your Facebook and Twitter followers when you publish a new LinkedIn Pulse article.
Susan Friesen is the founder of eVision Media, a boutique web development and Digital Marketing firm of over 15 years that specializes in designing, building and marketing professional, unique websites for entrepreneurs, businesses and organizations.


The Wonders of Chinese Pulse Diagnosis

As I sat there for the first time to get acupuncture for a chronic knee condition, my acupuncturist told me to lay my hands down on the table, palms up, so he could feel my pulses. I suspected that he was simply trying to get the rate, but after five minutes, it became clear to me that there was a lot more that he was looking for.

After several more minutes, my acupuncturist told me in broken English that I had weak kidneys and that is why I felt spaced out and tired a lot of the time. He also told me that my kidneys were responsible for my knee pain, the occasional soreness I felt in my low back, and the low pitched ear ringing that seemed to come out of nowhere. On top of this, he also said that the vague feeling of fear that I get from time to time is due to weak kidney function as well. I looked at him quizzically    aromavita-institut    and asked, ‘ you got all of that from feeling my pulses??’

He simply nodded his head. What struck me as somewhat mind boggling was how accurate he was about each of these symptoms, even though I had only told him about the pain in my knees. Unfortunately, my knees did not respond to the several sessions of acupuncture, but that interaction about my pulses filled me with a trust in Chinese medicine and curiosity about its application that eventually led me to a career as an acupuncturist with a focus on this ancient art.

There are numerous traditions of pulse diagnosis throughout the many strands of Asian medicine. The most popular form that is utilized by Western acupuncturists incorporates twenty-six distinct pulse qualities, each one reflecting specific organ imbalances that may be contributing to the patient’s substandard health. There are also three basic positions along the radial artery on both wrists that the acupuncturist palpates, each one mirroring the function of a major organ in the body. The following diagram reveals each of these organs and their locations.

Left Hand Right Hand (I would recommend inserting a diagram here of the hand/wrist and each of these positions specifically mapped out for the reader)

1st: Heart 1st: Lung

2nd: Liver 2nd: Spleen

3rd: Left Kidney (yin) 3rd: Right Kidney

The acupuncturist will feel for specific qualities at each of these positions to determine the relative health of each organ and how the organs are functioning in relation with one another. The pulse can yield qualities in each of these positions that can be indicative of spiritual, emotional or physical issues; deciphering this information is largely based on the skill of the acupuncturist. Now that we have covered the basics, let’s look at a few of the most compelling features of this diagnostic method.

Stability and Shock

When I first feel the patient’s pulses, the most important dynamic that I examine is the overall stability of the heart. Stability is determined by the consistency in rate, rhythm, and intensity found on the pulse. If the pulse is changing in rate or if it conveys any irregularity in its rhythm of beats or the qualities felt, then stabilizing the pulse becomes a top treatment priority. When the pulse is unstable, then the heart is unstable. This is almost always due to a state of shock that has overtaken the patient’s capacity to experience optimum health and balance. We normally think of shock as a kind of blunt trauma or overt danger that has jeopardized our basic survival. On a more subtle level, however, shock can be seen as any defining moment in life that throws us off balance and undermines our ability to be present in our lives. Situations such as divorce, job loss, verbal abuse, addictions, and stress can all cause this form of shock. When the heart loses its momentary consistency and rhythm, our faculties of awareness and insight likewise become compromised. The heart shen, the spirit or awareness that emanates from the heart, becomes obscured. As this happens, we lose contact with our intuitive faculties, which makes life feel untrustworthy and full of struggle.

The five element acupuncture model states that we can only resolve chronic health concerns when the underlying state of shock is properly addressed. This is why so many of us get stuck in the frustrating cycle of feeling initial improvement in our symptoms, only to experience a regression a short while later that lands us right back where we started or worse. Without this deep foundation of a balanced heart shen, the patient simply does not have their own spirit to use as an ally in the healing process. Interestingly, when patients heal from shock and their pulses become stable, one of the most common statements that I hear in my practice is, ‘I feel like I have my Self back.’ This response to treatment always leads me to an optimistic view of the patient’s situation because they now have an inner resource of awareness and strength to draw on that was previously lacking.

The Power of Prevention

Susan, a 33 year old female, came to my practice looking for ways to manage a severe anxiety and depressive disorder that had been persisting for several years. At the time I saw her, she was taking two anti-depressants. She complained of fatigue, feeling excessively warm, thirst, and restless sleep. Susan had a classic pattern of yin deficiency, which means that the cooling, calming, and moistening aspects of her physiology had been compromised. Yin deficiency is typically seen in people between the ages of 45-65. It is a sign that one’s constitutional strength is weakening due to over thinking, worry, or anxiety.. To see this pattern in Susan, a 33 year old, suggests that her mental condition was causing her to age prematurely. Given that the pattern would likely continue to worsen over years if it was not treated, my prediction was that Susan would enter menopause in her late thirties or early forties and that her body may give out on her long before she had lived a full life. As I used acupuncture and herbs to nourish her yin, we were concurrently working to heal not only her current symptoms but also her tendency toward premature aging. As her pulse began to relax and soften, Susan began to feel more emotionally balanced than she had in years and she actually began to look noticeably younger. She felt cooler, more energized, and was sleeping more soundly. It was apparent from her pulses and overall presentation that Susan’s general health had improved dramatically and that her potential for longevity had greatly increased due to her course of yin nourishing treatment.

This case study reveals how the pulse serves as an accurate gauge for clarifying our tendencies toward health and longevity or illness and degeneration. Simply put, the pulse clearly shows the acupuncturist which way the wind is blowing. Is the patient cultivating energy through balance and moderation or depleting energy through excessive worry or activity, dietary imbalances, or other lifestyle factors? Each individual organ position conveys that organ’s tendency toward health or disease. Therefore, a skilled acupuncturist is able to not only address the patient’s current health concerns, but also educate them on health trends that will likely manifest in the future as based on the patient’s pulse qualities. Western medicine is only interested in treating disease when it is fully manifest, whereas Chinese medicine, by virtue of pulse diagnosis, is more capable of cutting through the momentum that is leading up to the disease. As stated by many of the leading doctors and medical pioneers throughout history, this latter ability is more truly indicative of the real purpose of medicine: To educate patients so that their lifestyle choices create a state of heightened wellness that makes them impervious to disease..

The Truth Revealed

An astute pulse diagnostician is able to experience the patient’s pulse as a direct line of communication that reveals poignantly honest and emotionally charged material. This is often in contrast to what the patient actually says about their situation, given that language is so often filtered through our subjective sense of what we want others to know about us. For example, a patient may convey a facade of everything being ‘fine’, but their pulse pattern contrastingly conveys a clear state of instability or disharmony. Another common scenario that I encounter is the patient who exudes an image of tranquility, but whose pulses show a deeply confined feeling of suppressed anger. When the acupuncturist can detect the true state of the patient’s inner life, then the potential for a powerful healing experience becomes much more accessible. In fact, one of the ultimate goals of highly developed pulse practitioners is to be able to prescribe very precise herbal formulas purely based on the patient’s pulse pattern. This ability is indicative of a truly holistic form of medicine, in that it sees beyond the patient’s myriad symptoms into the underlying pattern of disharmony that is causing their substandard health. As the pulse begins to balance, the acupuncturist becomes more confident that the patient’s overall health is improving, even if this occurs before the patient actually notices overt improvement. I have had several cases in which the patient’s pulses evidenced drastic improvement before their symptoms actually felt better. After my encouragement to stick with the process a while longer, these patients almost always begin to notice dramatic progress shortly after their pulses reflect a more harmonious state.

There are pulse practitioners who are so gifted at absorbing the meaning of the qualities they feel that their abilities appear to cross into a psychic terrain. The acupuncturist of this caliber, however, will often say that their abilities are completely ordinary and what is felt on the patient’s pulse is merely common sense knowledge that is accessible to anyone. The idea here is that the patient’s entire life story is just sitting there waiting to be acknowledged; it is simply a matter of keeping the senses open to all of the information being presented, whether it is of a physical or emotional nature. As with many alternative forms of healing, the ordinary nature of the method or plant being utilized is what makes it so magical. The incredibly rich tradition of Chinese pulse diagnosis is, unfortunately, dying because more practitioners are relying upon technological devices for their diagnostic information. The simple act of feeling another person’s pulse may not seem ‘objective’ or ‘mechanistic’ enough for many of us in the modern world. In my experience, however, it is this very ordinary level of contact with another person that so often marks the difference between genuine healing and palliative care.


Take Charge of Your Health With a Finger Pulse Oximeter

Have you heard about the benefits of learning how to use finger pulse oximeters at home?

Instead of rushing to your doctor’s office with worries about inadequate oxygenation, you can now quickly and safely check your blood oxygen levels to be sure that oxygen is reaching all parts of your body in a timely manner.

The finger pulse oximeter is a self-contained fingertip pulse oximeter which incorporates the electronics and the sensor into one unit.    This pocket size digital pulse oximeter is very compact, and the unit itself is placed on the fingertip as it shines two beams of light through the fingertip to sort out the color of the blood and determine the oxygen saturation level, pulse rate and pulse strength measurements.

This finger pulse oximeter utilizes their uniquely patented algorithms in an extremely handy, pocket size solution that provides accurate SpO2, pulse rate and pulse strength measurements on patients from infants to adults. This digital pulse oximeter provides clinicians with quick, accurate readings of oxygen saturation, pulse rate, and pulse strength assessment. This lightweight device combines the broad functionality of a standalone unit with the flexibility of a hand-held instrument, yet it is compact enough to fit in the palm of your hand. The finger pulse oximeter platform provides exceptional monitoring performance and enables the device to offer unique sensors that address specific clinical challenges. Because it is pocket size, a broader range of patients can be successfully monitored, without significant time lost.

The finger pulse oximeter offers the features of a conventional oximeter in a compact and user friendly configuration that delivers fast and reliable oximetry. It also provides convenience to clinicians in EMS, hospital and clinical environments. The portability of the fingertip pulse oximeters makes them a very popular choice for home use and for medical professionals who are always on the go, providing a cost effective solution for spot-checks and short term monitoring. Superior performance and unparalleled reliability put vital signs within reach anywhere, anytime.

Finger pulse oximeters can be purchased at medical supply shops or some types of pharmacies. They are usually pretty affordable and easy to use. People who have circulatory problems or respiratory disorders may be able to use a fingertip pulse oximeter to check blood oxygen readings and ensure the body is getting enough oxygen.

After purchasing one of many types of finger pulse oximeters, read the guidelines to be sure you know how to use it. Then practice placing it on the finger you will be using for oxygenation monitoring. It may be helpful to write down each reading you take from a digital pulse oximeter. If you have questions or get uncertain readings, you will have that information ready to share with the doctor if the need should arise. A finger pulse oximeter may make the difference between controlled and uncontrolled oxygen levels in your blood.

Early diagnosis can lead to an early cure. Be sure to use finger pulse oximeters correctly if your doctor prescribes one for you. Protect your health and ensure peace of mind when you purchase a finger pulse oximeter for home monitoring. You will be glad that you took this important step in checking your blood levels to be sure you are staying as healthy as possible for as long as possible.

Suffering from sleep apnea is certainly no fun for your partner as Michael Jennings knows. Using a pulse oximeter [] has helped him with this problem. To find out more, visit his website on Oximeters